
Science /
The Theory Of TemporalityThe life or constancy of a particular state of anything is measured in duration of Time (Seconds). A given existence cannot be completely stationary however. In fact, if you look closely enough, all particles that make up matter are vibrating, rotating, or moving kinetically. The nature of reality is that things exist by repeating a cycle or pattern over and over again. Any given existence can thus be measured in frequency (hertz) of repetitions, its existence rate, so to speak. An existence can also be quantified by the energy required to maintain it. For instance, a photon has a certain energy (E) that is related to its frequency (f) by E = hf, where h is the Planck constant. Waveparticle duality means that all particles are also waves, and thus must have some kind of frequency. f = 1/t The refresh rate of the universe, aka the existence rate of the vacuum, is one second divided by the Planck time, which approximates to around 5.39106 x 10^44 hertz. The maximum energy that can exist in a point in spacetime then is: E = hf = 6.62606957 x 10^34 x 5.39106 x 10^44 = 1.85492 x 10^43 Joules This is approximately how much temporal energy can be confined in a Planck volume of space. Temporal energy is the kinetic energy that moves an object or volume of space through the time dimension. All particles in the universe, by virtue of their being imparted this energy at the Big Bang, move through time with a temporal energy equal to the energy of their rest mass. What current physics refers to as kinetic energy is the spatial energy that moves an object through the spatial dimensions. Spatiotemporal energy is spatial energy + temporal energy and represents the true kinetic energy of a system travelling through spacetime. There are two possible theories of temporality. One is Linear Temporality, and the other is Hyperbolic Temporality. Linear Temporality In this theory, an object at rest in time has zero temporal energy, and increasing the temporal velocity of an object requires an increase in temporal energy. In this view, time is just like another dimension of space. In Linear Temporality, the apparent mass of an object remains constant regardless of how quickly it is travelling through time, because the increased energy is offset by appearing less frequently in time. The problem with Linear Temporality is that it suggests that objects with no mass should be stationary in time. But instead, we see that objects such as photons, which are massless, move through time. This apparent contradiction can only be solved if we consider the alternative hypothesis. Hyperbolic Temporality In this theory, an object at rest in time requires infinite temporal energy to remain at rest. Increasing the temporal velocity of an object still requires an increase in the temporal energy, but increasing temporal velocity does not move an object faster through the time dimension, but rather moves the object faster in relation to other things moving through time. In this sense, extra temporal energy “creates” time local to the object. This is more consistent with relativity. The more massive something is, the greater it appears to distort spacetime. What is really happening is that the mass of an object is its temporal energy, and greater mass thus means that it appears to exist more frequently in a particular region of spacetime. Time is peculiar in that whereas with space, holding a stationary position requires no energy, and increasing velocity increases the amount of energy required to maintain that velocity, the opposite is true of time. With time, the holding a stationary position in the time dimension requires infinite temporal energy, and moving at the speed of light through the time dimension requires zero temporal energy. Massless particles like photons thus move through time at that rate. Higher mass particles actually move through time more slowly. Negative mass particles move through time more quickly. At an infinite mass, time appears to stop (or rather, the object stops moving in time), which is consistent with relativity. What’s really happening is that when you increase your temporal energy, rather than increasing your rate of travel through time, you actually increase the temporal resolution locally. What this means is that you are essentially expanding that region of spacetime, which is why increased mass appears to distort spacetime. The speed of light (in metres/second) is a constant of proportionality between the total energy and the mass of anything. But what if it wasn’t actually a constant, but related to the temporal velocity? If an object travelled half as quickly through time, then the speed of light would appear to it to double. Conversely, if an object travelled through time twice as fast, then the speed of light would appear to it to be halved. In addition, the Planck constant (in joules seconds) is also affected by changes in the temporal velocity. In this case, the Planck constant increases proportionally to the temporal velocity. If an object travelled half as quickly through time, then the Planck constant would be half. Conversely, if an object travelled through time twice as fast, then the Planck constant would double. The Planck constant is thus the temporal rate of the universe, the speed or velocity of time so to speak, the rate at which the universe updates. Perhaps most interestingly, the mass of an object would appear to change relative to its temporal velocity, as extra temporal energy was added to it. Since the temporal energy decreases with the square of the velocity through time, to the object, its mass would seem to increase by eight times for every halving of temporal velocity. What would appear to remain constant to the object if you changed the velocity of the object through time is its frequency. But keep in mind that this is with regards to the frame of reference of the object with the changing velocity through time. Everyone else in the universe would not see any change in the speed of light, or the Planck constant. What they would see change is the mass and the frequency, which will appear to halve with the doubling of the temporal velocity. E = mc^2 / sqrt(1 – v^2/c^2) E = mc^2 mc^2 = hf Temporal Velocity (v): m = mv^3 c = c/v h = hv f = f E = mv^3(c/v)^2 = hvf OR m = m/v^3 c = cv h = h/v f = f E = m/v^3(cv)^2 = (h/v)f When temporal energy is increased or decreased, the effect is that the object or volume of space will experience time dilation, and exist multiple times in a given volume of space. Thus, mass energy is proportional to the frequency of existence of an object. This actually makes some intuitive sense, that if an object were to exist more frequently in time, then it would be equivalent to having multiple instances of the object existing in the same amount of time. E = hf E = h/t t = h/E E = mc^2 hf = mc^2 f = mc^2 / h Velocity: v = x/t E = 1/2mv^2 E = 1/2m(x/t)^2 E = 1/2mx^2(1/t)^2 t = 1/sqrt(E/(1/2mx^2)) E = mc^2 / sqrt(1 – v^2/c^2) E = mc^2 / sqrt(1 – (x/t)^2/c^2) E = mc^2 / sqrt(1 – x^2(1/t)^2/c^2) E = mc^2 / sqrt(1 – x^2/(t^2c^2)) An object travelling at the speed of light experiences a proper time interval of 0, which means that from its relative perspective, it takes no time at all to travel any distance. Thus, to a photon, it appears like the traversal of spacetime is instantaneous. At rest: delta t0 = delta t sqrt(1 – v^2/c^2) delta t0 = delta t sqrt(1 – 0^2/c^2) delta t0 = delta t sqrt(1 – 0) delta t0 = delta t At the speed of light: delta t0 = delta t sqrt(1 – v^2/c^2) delta t0 = delta t sqrt(1 – c^2/c^2) delta t0 = delta t sqrt(1 – 1) delta t0 = 0 The apparent acceleration of the expansion of the universe that began five billion years ago can be explained as the effect of our Sun propagating energy onto our observation point of the universe, the Earth. Five billion years ago, the Sun formed, and since then, it has constantly outputted energy towards us. This energy increases the velocity at which we travel through time, creating a small time contraction effect that makes it seem like the expansion of space is accelerating. 